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Tommy Tucker celluloid doll 17", Rheinische Gummi turtle mark

Tommy Tucker doll, 17" tall, all celluloid,

Rheinische Gummi turtle marking


Celluloid dolls are made from cellulose nitrate, alcohol, fillers and camphor pigments.  Celluloid dolls were made in: Bavaria, England, France, Japan, Germany, Italy (dolls from Germany were sent to Italy for the face to be painted), Poland, Spain and the USA.  

Early dolls had a celluloid head and limbs or partial limbs with a cloth stuffed body, this celluloid material is rather fragile.  About 1908 the material improved and the dolls were then made entirely of celluloid, and were now more durable.  

In the 1940s the USA outlawed the use of celluloid for dolls, as the material can be flammable if exposed to high heat or open flame, however, other countries continued to use the material long after the 1940s.  Also, the celluloid material deteriorates when exposed to moisture.


Celluloid Dolls, Doll Makers and Identifying Doll Marks





Abt & Franke 1865-1922 (Prussia), made small celluloid with kid body dolls, dressed in a christening gown, Baby dolls that came in baskets, pillows and suitcases that also came with a trousseaux, all of very good quality, doll mark unknown.


Anel & Fraisse 1913-1929+ (FRA), factory in Muzy, France, after 1921 known as Anel & Fils, made celluloid babies, character dolls and children, doll mark unknown.  Succeeded by Tissier et Cie.


Anili Doll Company 1948-1986 (Italy), Anili is the daughter of Elena Scavini of Lenci, Anili is best known for their felt Lenci like cloth dolls, however they also made celluloid mask face dolls, dolls are marked with a circular paper tag, a heart symbol, Anili, Italy.


Apfelbaum & Batzner 1925-1927 (Bavaria) made petite doll house dolls in bisque or celluloid.


Arcy Toy Manufacturing 1912-1930 (USA), made bisque, celluloid and composition dolls, doll mark unknown.


JM Arnold 1918-1934 (GER), made celluloid and rubber dolls with molded painted hair and facial features, doll mark unknown.


Averill 1913-1965 (USA), Sunny Girl doll and Sunny Boy doll are both made of celluloid, doll mark a turtle.


Baby Outfitters 1917-1918 (USA), made celluloid or composition dressed character dolls marked Bo-Peep American.


Bähr & Pröschild 1871-1919 (GER), bisque dolls, celluloid dolls with doll mark Buporit, bought by Bruno Schmidt in the 1930s.


Bauer & Richter 1922-1927 (GER), also called Rodaer Puppen und Spielwaren Fabrik, made ball jointed character dolls, porcelain childrenBayerische Celluloidwarenfabrik doll mark circle W dolls, walking Mama dolls and celluloid babies, unknown doll mark.  Registered doll trademarks; Herzkaferchen (Lady Bug), Mein Kleiner Schlingel (My Little Rascal) and Asa-dor.


Bayerische Celluloidwarenfabrik 1897-1926 (GER), made celluloid child, character dolls, doll mark W -- >


Berliner Celluloidfabrik 1895 (GER), also known as Kuntz & Company, applied for a patent tor make celluloid doll limbs.


Best & Company 1902-1927 (USA), made dolls of glass, wood, composition, metal, celluloid, doll tradename Snuggles, doll mark unknown.


Buschow & Beck 1888-1930s (GER), made metal head dolls, celluloid doll heads, both marked Minerva with a helmet symbol,  their USA partner was Alfred Vischer, dolls were distributed by Borgfeldt, Louis Wolf and Sears.


Wilhelm Buschow 1896-1929 (GER), factory made celluloid (Schildkrote), rubber dolls, trademark Mein Herzenskind (My Sweetheart) used Simon & Halbig doll mold 126, Armand Marseille doll mold 342, 370, 410, 990.


Canzler & Hofffman 1906-1951 (W. GER), made stuffed leather dolls, celluloid dolls, miniature dollhouse dolls, doll mark Caho, after 1952the company name and location was changed to Caco Company 1952-1980s (W. GER), new doll mark Caco.


Robert Carl 1895-1929 (GER), and successors, made bisque, wax-cloth, cloth & celluloid head dolls, doll mark Germany a circle RC inside.


Cellba Celluloid Warenfabrik or Schoberl & Becker 1923-1960s + (GER) - doll mark winged mermaid (see below for photo).


Erich Dittmann 1948-1960s (GER), made small celluloid dolls, doll mark EDI Puppen.


Stephan Erhard, also S. Erhard & Son 1887-1930 (ENG), celluloid dolls, doll mark diamond with S.E.S, S E & S.


Exeloid Co. 1918-1920 (USA), made lightweight celluloid Pyralin novelty dolls in blue, pink and white.  Foulds & Freure doll mark F & F NY INC


Fabricus Toy & Novelty 1858-1914 (USA), jobber, sold celluloid dolls from various mfgs.


Foulds & Freure 1911-1930+ (USA), jobber, sold German and Japan celluloid dolls, doll mark F & F NY INC -------------------------->


G. Covert & Co 1913+ (FRA), made celluloid dolls, doll mark a windmill + Covert.


Giocattoli Brevettati Galetti 1950s-? (ITA) - made small celluloid souvenir dolls, doll mark symbol of two standing roosters facing, Made in Italy.


Otto Gans, Gans & Seyfarth 1901-1930s (GER), made bisque and celluloid dolls, doll mark OG, OGA.


Gerzon dolls 1925-1930 Holland, Netherlands, importer and distributor, advertised celluloid and composition dolls.


Oskar Günther 1924-1925 (GER), made cellulose dolls in Gräfenroda, Thüringia, registered doll mark Helgünith.


Hambley Brothers 1760+ (ENG), import, exporter of celluloid & other dolls, doll mark Fums Up, Thumbs Up.


Heindrich Handwerck 1876-1932 (GER), was known for their bisque head dolls, but also made some celluloid dolls.


Carl Hartmann 1889-1930 (GER), exported small bisque and celluloid dolls, doll mark CH, GlobeBaby


Heber & Company German celluloid doll mark HC


Heber & Company 1900-1922 (GER), celluloid dolls, probably other type dolls, too, doll mark HC intertwined.


Hermsdorfer Celluloid Warenfabrik 1925-1927 (GER), made celluloid baby and child dolls, doll mark symbol of a Ladybug, a Marienkäfer, DA DA on the wings.


Theodore Hess & Co. 1918-1930 (GER), made all celluloid jointed dolls.


Carl Heumann 1918-1930 (GER), made celluloid baby with a bottle and suck a thumb dolls.


Carl Hoffmeister 1890-1925 (GER), made celluloid dolls, heads from Rheinische Gummi (turtle mark), metal doll heads from Buschow & Beck with the doll mark Minerva with a helmet symbol.


Hollywood 1941-1926 (USA), made small celluloid dolls, doll mark a star with Hollywood across it.



Dr. Paul Hunaeus Celluloidwaren-Fabrik 1890-1930 (GER), made celluloid doll heads and dolls, doll mark PH intertwined, Igodi, in 1930 merged with Rheinische Gummi (Schildkröt).


Jacob Jung 1912 (GER) made celluloid dolls, doll mark a standing stork carrying a baby.


Irwin & Company 1926 + (USA), made cloth, composition, celluloid and hard plastic dolls, doll mark Irwin Made in USA, Non-Flam. 


Japan, celluloid doll marks makers unknown - Symbol Doll Marks; origami bird, butterfly, fleur-de-listhree acorn leaves. 

Word Doll Marks; Japan Royal, Japanese character markings, Made in Japan, Made in Japan K + Nippon (made by the Nippon company), Made in Occupied Japan.


Kammer & Reinhardt 1886-1932 (GER), wax dolls, bisque dolls, cloth dolls, biscaloid (composition material that looks like bisque) and celluloid dolls marked K star R, K & R W, doll molds 301, 406, 700, 701, 717, 728, + others


Katagini Brothers 1930 (USA), made celluloid dolls, doll mark unknown.


Kestner 1805-1938 (GER), made wax dolls, bisque and celluloid dolls, JDK turtle marking, plus many other doll marks.


Knickerbocker Doll & Toy Co 1925 + (USA), made some celluloid dolls, plus dolls of other materials.


Kohl & Wengenroth 1902-1926 (GER), made celluloid dolls, doll mark IGODI (for Johannes Dietrich dolls), KW + a female figure symbol 


Konig (Köenig) & Wernicke 1911-1935 (GER), made bisque & celluloid dolls, doll mark K & WW 29815 or 29817, inside a circle + see the turtle mark below.


Kathe Kruse 1910-2001 (GER), made cloth dolls first, then celluloid dolls, doll mark Schultz KK (1st K is backward).


Langfelder, Homma & Hayward 1921 + (USA), took over for Morimura, importer of bisque, celluloid dolls from Germany & Japan, as well as a distributor of composition and rubber dolls in the USA.


Le Minor Dolls 1936-1950s + (FRA), made small celluloid dolls with heads made by Petitcollin.


Ernst Liebermann 1894-1938 (GER), made bisque and celluloid head character dolls and babies on ball jointed body, doll mark EL, ELI.


Lona Art Dolls 1927 (GER), used Rheinische Gummi celluloid heads on August Schmidt cloth bodies, doll marks Lona, D.R.P.


Ernest EG.M Luthardt 1868-1938 (GER), Lederpupenfabrik und Export = Factory and Exporter of leather dolls, also dolls made of bisque, China, celluloid, composition heads on leather, cloth or felt and composition bodies.  In 1929 began using the trademark name Luta.


Robert Maaser 1911-1930s (GER), made bisque, composition and celluloid heads on a jointed body.


Marks Brothers 1918-1930s (Boston, MA  USA), has name in marking, importers of bisque & celluloid dolls.


Carl Meyer 1894-1921 (GER), made bisque, celluloid character dolls and babies.


August Möller & Sohn 1915-1928 (GER), advertised replacement bisque, celluloid and porcelain heads for child and baby dolls with human or mohair wigs, sometime later Möller made entire dolls with a bisque head dolly face or composition dolly face head, on a composition jointed body.  Möller also operated a doll hospital, doll mark AMUSO, doll molds 70, 100, 1920, doll name Jeannette.


Molls Doll Co 1950s-1960s (GER), made Trachten-Puppen (costume dolls) in celluloid, doll mark a symbol of two Scottie dogs playing tug of war.


Wilhelm G. Muller 1900-1930s (GER), exported celluloid heads made by Schildkröt, doll mark WEE GE M, WGM.


N.A.T.L. Novedad Arte Tomalidad Ingenio 1930-1950s (Spain), made art and souvenir dolls of celluloid.


Nürnberger Celluloidwaren Fabrik, Gebrüder Wolff 1910-1930+ (GER), made celluloid dolls and doll parts, including 1930 Lya die  Schwimmerin, a mechanical swimming doll with a celluloid head.


Palitoy Cascelluloid Co 1919-1968 (ENG), made composition, celluloid and hard plastic dolls.


Parisienne de Celluloisine Cie 1921 (FRA), made celluloid dolls and nonflammable dolls.


Parsons Jackson Co 1910-1919 (Ohio, USA) made biskoline a celluloid like material dolls, modeled after real babies both white and black dolls, doll mark  KKK, Biskoline, and a standing stork symbol.


J. Paturel Et Cie 1925-1928 (FRA), made celluloid child and baby dolls in both white and black.


W. Payne & Son 1772-1927 (ENG), department store imported dolls from France, after WW II made of their own dolls in celluloid.


Alfred Pensky 1919-1930s (Bavaria), factory that made miniature bisque, celluloid and China dolls, doll mark Pehalo Hannalore.


Charles Perls Co 1916-1922 (ENG), made celluloid and composition dolls.


Petitcollin 1914-1950s+ (FRA), made celluloid doll heads, Marie-France, doll mark an eagle with FRANCE beneath.


Preh GmbH dolls 1919 to present (GER), 1949+ made celluloid or plastic dolls mark Plasticbaby, symbol angel baby doll.


Michael Querzola dolls 1950s-1960s (ITA) made small celluloid souvenir dolls, doll mark, MQ a tree symbol Made in Italy


Les Poupées Raynal 1922-1963 (FRA) - made cloth or felt dolls, some with celluloid faces, that are Lenci look a like dolls, may have a marking on the bottom of the shoes; Les Poupées Raynal or a cloth tag; Les Poupées Raynal Marque Depose Made in France.  From (1937-1963) doll martk rhodoid a type of celluloid was used for dolls and doll parts which maybe marked Raynal.


C. A. Reed 1924 (USA), made celluloid bride and groom dolls.


Goldmann Reich Co 1890-1927 (GER), made celluloid child and baby dolls with a bent limb body.


W. Reinick 1926 (GER), made bisque and celluloid head dolls.


Rempel & Breitung 1920-1930+ (GER), handled celluloid dolls and doll heads made by Rheinische Gummi und Celluloid Fabrik Co, also bisque heads and other items used by doll hospitals;  bodies, wigs, etc., bisque head doll mark 28 117 RB 1 1/4 probably by Rempel & B.


Schultzmarke, turtle mark on celluloid dolls

Rheinische Gummi und Celluloid Fabrik doll mark symbol of a turtle


Rheinische Gummi und Celluloid Fabrik Co 1873+ (GER)  Schildkrot (Schildkroet Puppen) - GER (made heads for other mfg's. too, Kestner, Kammer & Reinhardt, Averill) doll mark a turtle inside a diamond (as shown on left),  Schultzmarke and a turtle marking, doll names; 1926 Miblu doll, 1931 Wumbi doll and Mambi both black dolls. This company made lots and lots of celluloid dolls and doll heads.  Doll mold 30, 1928


Shown on right; Turtle mark, Tortulon and a number, Tortulon is a hard plastic type material used instead of celluloid by Rheinische Gummi in later years.

Turtle, Tortulon plastic material doll marking

Turtle mark Tortulon 50



Max Rudolph 1908-1930 (GER), made doll heads of bisque; doll mold 98, 342, celluloid Miblu heads; doll mold 350 and porzellanitLouis Sametz doll mark American Indian head symbol (composition) heads doll mold 399, doll mark MR inside a W.


Louis Sametz 1918-1924 (USA), made celluloid Kewpies & Bye-Lo babies, doll mark an Indian head American.


Henry Schanzer Co 1927 (USA), made small celluloid & composition dolls to dress in crocheted or knitted outfits. 


Karl Scheffler 1926-1930s (GER), made all celluloid child dolls, babies & celluloid head on a cloth body dolls.


Heinrich Shelhorn 1901-1935 (GER), made celluloid and porcelain dolls.


Gustave Schmey 1853-1930s (GER), exporter of celluloid dolls and others.


August Schmidt, Lona Art Dolls 1927+ (Lieben)  dolls have a celluloid head (Rheinische Gummi) with molded hair, cloth body, 14 & 15 1/5" tall, came with a wrist tag Lona.


Bruno Schmidt 1898-1930s (GER) - BSW in a heart + others, bought Bähr & Proschild (1871-1919) in the 1930s, made celluloid dolls + more, best known for Tommy Tucker & Wendy dolls.


Franz Schmidt Co 1890-1937 (GER), made bisque & celluloid heads, doll marks FS, F S & C, F S & Co., S & C.


Heinrich Schmuckler 1891-1928 (POL & CHEK), made wood, celluloid and cloth dolls, doll mark symbol of a rabbit with the word HeSli inside

Schoberl celluloid dol Cellba marking - mermaid inside a shield


Schoberl & Becker 1923-1960s  (GER), also known as Cellba Celluloid Warenfabrik  celluloid doll mark a winged mermaid inside a shield.




Schreyer & Co 1912-1950s (GER), made celluloid dolls, used the doll mark Schuco.



Schwäbische Celluloidwarenfabrik celluloid doll mark S, stork carrying a child



Schwäbische Celluloidwarenfabrik 1913+ (GER) made celluloid products with dolls being made between 1930-1967, doll mark S symbol of a stork with a child on it's back.




Schwerdt Feger & Co 1904-1930 (GER), made felt dolls, some with a celluloid head covering.



Frau Mathilde Sehm 1869-1930 (GER), made fairytale dolls, doll house and celluloid baby & character dolls.


  Sekiguchi celluloid doll mark 3 leaf clover Made in Japan

Sekiguchi Corp. 1918 to present (Japan), made celluloid dolls and toys, celluloid doll mark is a three leaf clover Made in Japan. 


Sekiguchi is still in business today, they currently make hard plastic and vinyl modern dolls; Bebichhichi, Coco, Momoko, Monchhichi and plush toys.




SFBJ, Societe Francaise de Fabrication de Bébé & Jouets 1899-1958 (FRA) made celluloid dolls, doll mark SFBJ + others.



SIDC, Societe Industrielle de Celluloid 1900-1927 (FRA), doll marks Sicoid, Sicoine, Siegfried, S / C & S.I.M.P and a trademark of a winged dragon or wyvern, with initials of N & M (Neumann & Marx their founders).



SNF, Societe Nobel Française 1927-1939 (FRA) formerly called SIDC see above, doll mark France + SNF inside a diamond.



SONSCO 1950s-1960s? (Japan), made celluloid dolls, some were mechanical walkers, doll mark Made in Japan on bottom of foot.


Société Sussfeld & Cie 1863-1930 (FRA), exporter and distributor; bisque heads also, celluloid & cloth dolls.  1917 registered doll marks; Clio Bébé Paris Marque Deposee, Thalie Bébé Paris Marque Deposee each with a standing and a seated doll.



Karl Standfuss 1898-1930 (GER), made metal head dolls with celluloid coatings, doll marks Juno.  A trade name was 1913 Cupido doll.


  Steha Dolls and Toys 1940s-1960s (West Germany), was formed from the companies Hermann Steiner & Hauser, dolls made of celluloid, composition or hard plastic, doll mark ST, Steha.



Sunny Twin Dolly Co 1919-1920 (USA), made celluloid dolls.



Tissier & Cie 1920s-1930s (FRA) sold dressed and undressed celluloid dolls.



Ungarische Gummiwaren Fabrik 1894-1930s (Hungary) made celluloid and rubber dolls and doll heads.



Unger Doll & Toy Co 1929-1930 (USA), made character dolls possibly of celluloid.


Alfred Vischer 1894-1907 USA - partners with the German Buschow & Beck Co, made Minerva marked metal head dolls, possibly the Minerva marked celluloid heads, too, dolls were distributed by Borgfeldt, Louis Wolf & Co. and Sears.



Viscoloid Company celluloid doll mark USA VCO


Viscoloid Company 1901-1930s (Leominster, MA USA), in 1915 they were bought by DuPont, made celluloid dolls, doll mark USA - VCO.  




Friedrich Voigt 1879-1930s (GER), manufacturer and exporter of bisque, celluloid and wood doll heads, doll mark Friona S 1879.


Carl Volker 1888-1930 (GER), sold bisque, celluloid dolls and bisque, celluloid heads on composition bodies.


Hermann VonBerg 1904-1930s (GER), made bisque, celluloid & composition head baby dolls, doll mark Germany H.v.B 500/K, Habeka.


Albert Wacker 1904-1930s (GER), made celluloid dolls and doll parts, doll mark W inside a circle.


Wallach 1914 (Bavaria) made composition head dolls on a cloth body with celluloid arms.


Westo 1950s-1960s? (GER or SWT) marked small celluloid tourist dolls, doll mark Westo.


Emil Wittzak 1862-1921 (GER), sold celluloid dolls as well as other types, doll mark Sheppard with a staff in a circle with the word trademark below.


Württembergische Spielwaren Puppen Werkstaten 1924-1927 (GER), toy factory & doll shop, made celluloid dolls, doll mark HEIDEKOPF (picture of a man with back sack & walking staff) SPIELWAREN.


PR Zast 1920s (Poland), made celluloid dolls, some human hair wigs, glass eyes, doll mark ASK in a triangle, Poland beneath.


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