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Ernst Reinhardt Dolls 1890s-1922 USA

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Ernst Reinhardt doll mark Made in USA ER Pat Sep 1914 Reinhardt

Ernst Reinhardt doll mark;


° Made in °

° ° °


° ° °

E. R.

 Pat. Sep. 1914


Ernst Reinhardt was born in 1875 near Hildburghausen, Thüringia Germany.  It is unknown if there is any connection to the Waltershausen, German Reinhardt's.  Ernst began assembling dolls when he was in his early 20s in Germany along with employees, neighbors and wife Laura Reinhardt who designed the dolls clothing, these first dolls were tiny miniature four inches tall, jointed at the shoulders and hips only and were dressed in German provincial costumes. 


By 1909 the Ernst Reinhardt family immigrated to Philadelphia, USA and established a doll factory making bisque heads with paper-mache and wood bodies.  Ernst was granted a patent in 1914 for the easy changing of the dolls stamped celluloid eyes.  In 1916 Ernst moved his porcelain factory now named Bisc Novelty Manufacturing Company and family to East Liverpool, Ohio.  Due to the war, doll production was a non-essential so around 1918 the family then moved to Irvington, New Jersey.  Doll heads marked Mesa and Perth Amboy are from this later period 1918 to 1922. 


With the end of war in 1922, inexpensive German bisque dolls again became available in the USA, thus ending Ernst doll making business. Ernst Reinhardt is believed to be the first to manufacture bisque head dolls in the United States commercially with domestic US clay.  Reinhardt designed his own unique doll molds to make both bisque socket and shoulder head dolls, sleep eyes or painted eyes, molded hair or wigged on composition ball jointed bodies.


Ernst Reinhardt Doll Marks Identified

Ernst Reinhardt doll mark intertwined ER initials

Ernst Reinhardt doll mark intertwined ER initials

Ernst Reinhardt doll mark iH 3 Reinhardt East Liverpool Ohio

Ernst Reinhardt doll mark USA ER

Ernst Reinhardt doll mark USA Augusta Perth Amboy, N.J. ER intertwined. 


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